NOUNS:MEANING, TYPES, FORMING PLURAL OF NOUNS AND FUNCTIONS OF NOUNS.
MEANING OF NOUNS: Nouns are naming words. It could be a name of a person, a place, an animal, a thing, a day, a month or an idea. For example, Abiola, Igbokoda, cat, book, Tuesday, January and happiness.
TYPES OF NOUNS: The following are the types of nouns>
PROPER NOUNS: Proper nouns are the names of particular persons, animals, places, or things. The first letter of proper nouns are written in capital letters. Examples of proper nouns are:
Titles—-Doctor, Prince, Pastor
Festivals—-Christmas, Easter, Id-el Fitri
Cities—-Ondo, Lagos, Anambra
Countries—Nigeria, Ghana, Germany
Lakes—-Lake Chad, Lake Victoria
Mountains—Mount Everest, Mount Kilimajaro
Institutions—University of Lagos, Zenith Bank, Nigeria Union of Teachers
COMMON/CONCRETE NOUNS: These are names of animals, persons, places and things that have the same features. Some of them include:
Persons—–boy, girl, man, father
Animals—dog, lizard, rabbit
Places—town, village, city
Things—table, biro, book, house
COLLECTIVE NOUNS—The collective nouns are names of groups of persons or things. E.g.—class of pupils, a team of players, a swarm of bees, a herd of cattle, committee, personnel, assembly, fleet, convoy etc.
ABSTRACT NOUNS—Abstract nouns refer to ideas and concepts which cannot be seen with lour naked eyes. One can only feel abstract nouns. Examples are pain, joy, sadness, hospitality.
FORMING PLURAL NOUNS: There are various ways of forming plural nouns. Some of them are as follow:
The plurals of some nouns are formed by adding ‘s’, ‘es’, and ‘en’.
‘S’—boy=boys, cars=cars, key=keys, road=roads
‘ES’—church=churches, fish=fishes, grass=grasses
If a noun ends in ‘Y’ in singular form and it is followed by a consonant, the ‘Y’ is change to ‘i’ and ‘es’ is added to form the plural. E.g.
Lady-ladies, city-cities, baby-babies.
There are some nouns where the ‘f’’ in the singular are changed to ‘-ves’ in the plural. E.g. knife=knives, thief=thieves, wife=wives.
Some other nouns with ‘f’ in singular take both ‘s’ and ‘-ves’ in the plural. E.g. hoof=hooves/hoofs, scarf=scarfs/scarves, wharf=warfs/wharves
Some nouns have ‘f’ and take an ‘s’ in plural. E.g. chief=chiefs, proof=proofs, belief=beliefs.
The middle letters of some nouns are changed in the plural forms. E.g. man=men, foot=feet, tooth=teeth, louse=lice
In some nouns ‘is’ is changed to ‘es’. E.g. axis=axes, crisis=crises, thesis=theses, basis=bases
Plural of some foreign words are formed in different ways. Example are: datum=data, criterion=criteria, memorandum =memoranda, agendum=agenda, larva=larvae, formula=formulas/formulae, index=indices/indexes.
There are some nouns in which both the singular and plural are the same. E.g. deer=deer, sheep=sheep, swine=swine, luggage=luggage, furniture=furniture, information=information, equipment=equipment.
There are some nouns that end with ‘s’ and are always seen as singular. E.g. news=news, Physics= Physics, measles=measles, Mathematics.
The headwords in compound words are always written in plural. E.g. man-servant=men-servant, step-daughter=step-daughters, woman-doctor=women-doctors, father-in-law=fathers-in-law.
There are some nouns that have no singular form, they are always in the plural form. E.g. scissors, trousers, glasses, shorts, pyjamas, outskirts etc.
FUNCTION OF NOUNS: Nouns perform the following functions.
SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE: The performer of these sentences are nouns. e.g. Ade likes frozen chicken
The principal flogged him.
OBJECT OF A VERB: The receiver of the action of the verb is the object in these sentences. The underlined nouns are the objects.
Mujoh hates corruption
The woman praised Ajala
COMPLEMENT OF A SUBJECT: The words underlined in these sentences are nouns. They give additional information about the subjects. E.g.
My father is a doctor.
I am a teacher
COMPLEMENT OF AN OBJECT: The words underlined in these sentences are nouns. They give additional information about the object in these sentences.
We elected him captain.
They called the boy general
COMPLEMENT OF PREPOSITION: This is when a noun is used to give additional information about a preposition in a sentence. e.g.
She takes great delight in sports
All human beings sleep at night