HISTORY OF MARKETING BY-INSTRUCTOR ASAKPA, P.E.
The history of marketing is divided into the following four eras:
THE PRODUCTION ERA: According to available records, until about 19th century, producers focused on production of quality products and thereafter searches for people who will buy them. The orientation then was not about identification of the needs of the people before production. Hence , quality products were produced without buyers who need them. Marketing research was not common and very remote. The philosophy of producers then was that a good product would sell itself.
THE SALES ERA: Literatures have it that between 1925 and early 1950’s, production techniques in developed countries of the world and the highly industrialized nations became more sophisticated and output grew. As a result, producers began to shift their focus on massive production of quality products without buyers. Their emphasis was changed to effective sales forces of finding customers for their manufactured products. During this era, producers made attempt to correspond their output to the number of potential and prospective customers who really need them. Producers with a sales orientation assume that customers will resist purchasing goods and services not deemed essential and that the task of personal selling and advertising is to convince them to buy.
THE MARKETING ERA: The marketing era led to the emergence of the marketing concept which is a crucial change in management philosophy as a shift from a seller’s market that is , one with a storage of goods and services to a buyer’s market[one with an abundance of goods and services. Based on the experience gained by the errors made during the production and sales eras, producers began to appreciate the importance of market research prior to making plans for production, therefore, the marketing era is characterized by the advantage placed on identifying and satisfying customers needs and wants before production of goods and services. The orientation of this era is that producers would produce what the people wanted and the people would then purchase the product.
THE RELATIONSHIP ERA: The motive and orientation behind the relationship era is to reinforce and enlarge the scope of the customer-oriented focus of the marketing era. The relationship era recognizes the value and profit potential of customer retention that is, ways of creating trading relationship by providing reasons to keep and retain existing customers and develop new customers. The philosophy is basically on maintaining good producer/ customer relationship. The history of marketing in Nigeria is not different from the global perspective, the history of marketing in Nigeria is as old as the time Nigeria came into existence when amalgamation took place and this could be traced to the evolution of trade by barter system by which people exchange their needs with commodity.