FICTION AND NON-FICTION: MEANING AND EXAMPLES, ELEMENTS OF PROSE:
A] FICTION: These are stories based on imagination. They are not real life experience. Examples of fiction are:
1. FOLKTALE AND FOLKLORE: The traditional stories, customs of a particular people which seem fictitious but have elements of truth.
2. FABLE: It is a traditional short story that teaches a moral lesson, especially a story about animals.
3. PARABLE: It is a simple story that teaches a moral lesson or religious lesson, especially one of the stories told by Jesus Christ in the Bible.
4. ROMANTIC: These are stories about love between a man and a woman. It may have a rough course at the beginning but the two lovers will be united and live in love after.
5. ALLEGORY: This is when an object is described under the disguise of another.
B] NON-FICTION: These are stories that are based on real life experiences. Examples of Non-fiction are:
1. BIOGRAPHY: This is a story written by someone about another person’s life. It is always written by people who are intimate friends.
2. AUTOBIOGRAPHY: It is when a person writes about his/her personal life experience in order of occurrence.
3. EPISTOLARY: It is a literary piece/writing written in form of a letter. A good example is Saint Paul series of letters to the Romans, Ephesians, Galatians etc.
C] ELEMENT OF PROSE: The following are the elements of prose:
1. PLOT: The plot is the sequence of events in the novel. It is based on how the novel develops and how incidents are put or hung together. It is divided into—
A] Simple plot: The events in simple plot are put together in a linear sequential order. The plot carries along the adventure of the character till the end. It is also referred to as closed plot.
B] Complex plot/open plot: The events are not well arranged. A part or chapter may be an incident that ends the story before the event starts to happen.
2. NARRATIVE TECHNIQUES: It is the way an author tells a story . It is also known as the ‘’point of view or perspective’’. It is divided into the following:
A] First person narrative: The narrator tells the story using the personal pronoun ‘I’. The narrator is involved in the action. The hero/heroine is regarded as the first person narrator.
B] Third-person/omniscient narrative: It is the narrator that knows everything. The narrator here always refers to all characters in a story by name or as ‘he’, ‘she’ and ‘they’[in the plural form].
C] Mixed point of view: This narrative technique is not common. It occurs where there are combination of first, third or any other point of view.
3. SETTING: This is the physical environment [the place or location] in which the action in a novel takes place.
4. CHARACTER AND CHARACTERISATION: The creation of men, women and animals to act in a story is referred to as character. Characterization shows how these characters relates make effect in a story. It is divided into:
A] Round character: It is a character that changes in a story. The actions, reactions and motives of a round character are clearly presented. One can know the good and bad intention of a round character. It is also known as major character.
B] Flat/minor character: It is created round a single idea or quality. Flat character are unpredictable, unique in thought and actions.
5. SUBJECT MATTER: It is what the story is all about. The main concerned of the author the central point of discussion.
6. THEMES: The ideas that formed the subject matter are referred to as themes. It forms the part of a novel or play. It is also the issues raised and discussed.
7. DICTION: This is the choice of words of an author. It shows whether the language used is simple or complex. It has to do with the expression used by an author.