ENGLISH LITERATURE AND LITERATURE –IN-ENGLISH, AIMS OF LITERATURE AND LITERARY APPRECIATION
ENGLISH LITERATURE AND LITERATURE-IN-ENGLISH: English literature refers to the literature of the English people while literature-in-English means literature written in English Language.
AIMS OF TEACHING LITERATURE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL: The aims of teaching literature in secondary school are as follow:
To give students a rich and well rounded humanistic education. It can be achieved through broadening the cultural horizon of students;
To enforce the English skills already acquired by the students by showing them language in a action in literary texts or words;
To expose students to healthy human values and attributes;
To expose students to the beauty and potentials of language;
To equip the students to develop the capacity for independent thought and judgment;
To encourage attempts at creative writing as a means of understanding the creative process;
To develop the students’ ability to respond appropriately and independently to literary works;
To transfer entertainment and instructive values of literature to students;
To prepare students to pass literature in the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination and also prepare them for work.
LITERARY APPRECIATION: Literary appreciation means the ability to:
Read literature with understanding and enjoyment;
Recognize and understand the techniques used by a creative writer in a work of art;
Understand the writer’s purpose, stated or implied and how he conveys it;
Give a critical opinion on a given text.
PROSE- MEANING, CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPES
PROSE: Prose can be defined as a free-flowing narrative in form of a novel, an essay or a short story. It is used to express the writer’s mind on things, people, places, life and life’s experiences. It is also made up of a series of events which are organized in a logical way.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PROSE: The characteristics of prose are:
It is written in paragraphs and chapters.
It is made up of characters and incidences which are organized in a chronological order.
It is written in both long and short sentences.
TYPES OF NOVEL/PROSE: The following are some of the types of novel.
THE PICARESQUE NOVEL: I t is originated from Spain in the 16th century. ‘’Picaro” is a Spanish word which means ‘’rogue’’, ‘’rascal’’ or ‘’beggar’’. The picaresque novel has a rascally hero, often mischievous and roguish occasionally. E.g. ‘’Danda’’ by Nkem Nwankwo .
EPISTOLARY NOVEL: It is a type of a story written in form of a letter. ‘’Epistola’’ is a Latin word for ‘’letter’’ e.g. Letters written by Apostle Paul in the Bible.
BILDUNSROMA: It is a German term which means ‘’novel of education’’. It brings out the various critical stages in the positive growth of a protagonist right from childhood to maturity. An example is ‘’Weep Not Child’’ by Ngugi James.
SOCIOLOGICAL NOVEL: This is a novel that deals with the impact of economic and social conditions of a period on characters and events. Social novels are also concerned with the culture of a people and their way of life e.g. ‘’Things Fall Apart’’ by Chinua Achebe, ‘’Faceless’’ by Armah Darko.
HISTORICAL NOVEL: This type of novel makes use of past events to enrich its narrative. The setting, happenings and some of its characters are taken from history in sequential order.
POLITICAL NOVEL: Political novel deals with politics and art of government. It is basically on the strategies and tactics of governance. E.g. ‘’The Castle of Otranto” by Horace Wadpole.
GOTHIC NOVEL: This type of novel is based on feeling and the cult of mysteries, atrocious crimes such as horror, kidnapping, rape, terror, murder and fantasies. E.g. ‘’The Castle of Otranto’’ by Horace Wadpol.e
NOVEL OF IDEAS: A novel is referred to as novel of deas when it focuses on a particular item rather than on its setting or characters. E.g. ‘’Lonely Days’’ by Bayo Adebowale