CROP PLANT FORM, IDENTIFICATION AND TYPES—BY INSTRUCTOR EREKATA, O.J.
CRROP PLANT FORM: A crop is a plant grown for a particular purpose. Plants like animals are living things. As livings, they have various parts which enable them carry out their daily life process. Crop plants consists of two main parts which are : the shoot system and the root system.
FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF A PLANT:
The root part is the part of the plant inside the soil. We have two types of roots. The tap root and fibrous root. The tap root consists of one major root from which various minor branches arise while the fibrous root consists of numerous similar fine roots all of which grows from the base of the plant.
FUN CTIONS OF THE ROOTS.
They anchor[holds] the plant firmly to the ground.
They absorb water and mineral salts from the soil and passes them to the stem.
They serves as storage organs in some crops e.g cassava.
THE STEM: The stem bears the leaves, buds, flowers and fruits. The functions include:
It supports the leaves, flowers and fruits
It conducts water and minerals salts as well as manufactured food to different parts of the plants.
In some plants, the stem serves as a storage organ e.g. sugar cane.
THE LEAF: The leaf is usually attached to the stem by a leaf called the petiole and a blade called ‘’lamina’’. A typical leaf contains veins through which water, plant food and mineral salt pass. The leaf manufactures food and transfers it to the stem. All green plants are capable of producing their own food by a process known as photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight. It perform the following functions:
The leaves manufacture food for the plant.
Some leaves serve as storage organs e.g. as in onions.
THE FLOWERS: The flower is the reproductive part of flowering plants. It is the region where the male and female organs produce the pollen grain and ovary respectively. The flower contains the ovary which develops to form fruit after pollination and fertilization. The ovules inside it develop to form the seeds. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma.
TYPES OF CROP PLANT FORM:
A] MONOCOTYLEDON PLANTS: These are the plants having only one seed leaf or cotyledon. Examples include maize, rice, oil palm, coconut etc.
B] DICOTYLEDON PLANTS: These are plants having two seed leaves or cotyledons. Examples include cowpea, mango, citrus, groundnut, tomato etc.
DIFFRERENCES BETWEEN MONOCOTYLEDON AND DICOTYLEDON PLANTS:
Monocotyledon has one seed leaf while dicotyledonous has two seed
Monocotyledon has fibrous root system while dicotyledonous has tap root system
Leaves are narrow in monocotyledon plants while in dicotyledonous leaves are broad.
Monocotyledon leaf has no stalk[petiole] while there is presence of leaf stalk in dicotyledonous
The monocotyledon has single erect stem without branches while dicotyledonous has stem with many branches.