CLAUSE-MEANING AND TYPES.
A clause is a group of words which contains a finite verb and functions as part of a sentence e.g.
I have a bag. I attend Engreg High School.
The two sentences above contain one finite verb each as explained. The finite verbs are: ‘’have and attend’’. The question now is what is a finite verb? A finite verb is a form of verb that can be used with a subject to form a verb tense. It could be in the present or past. Finite verb and clause have these features:
FEATURES OF A FINITE VERB
A] It agrees with its subject in term of persons and numbers. Eg.
Bade walks home everyday
We walk home everyday
The verb ‘walks’ is third person singular and it agrees with the singular subject Bade while the verb ‘walk’ is plural and it tallies with the plural subject ‘WE’
B] It can be divided into present and past.eg. EAT-ATE, SEE-SAW
C] It cannot be used as adjective e.g. I saw the broken bottle. The word broken is an adjective not a verb.
D] A finite verb is not a gerund verb e.g. Reading is a culture. The word reading is used as a gerund. Gerund is a verbal form that function as a verbal noun. ‘’Reading’’ is the subject of the sentence and function as noun.
FEATURES OF A CLAUSE
A clause can be divided into Subject and Predicate. A subject is the performer of an action or the noun being referred to in a sentence while the predicate is the part which contain the action performed by the subject. e.g.
Gbebemi went to Lagos last week.
Ifelayo paid my school fees last term.
In the two sentences above, ‘’Gbebemi and Ifelayo’’ are the subjects while ‘’went to Lagos last week’’ and ‘’paid my school fees last term’’ are the predicates.
Let us discuss the types of clause.
There are two types of clause.
A] Main/Independent/Principal clause: It is a clause that can be fully understood. It can stand on its own e.g. She ate the food. We ran home ran quickly.
B] Subordinate/Dependent clause: This is a clause that requires the support of another clause [main clause] before it can be understood. e.g.
I saw Tunji when I was coming to school.
Main clause: I saw Tunji
Subordinate Clause: when I was coming to school.
The girl who gave you bread is my daughter.
Main clause: The girl is my daughter
Subordinate clause: who gave you bread.
The subordinates clauses above cannot be fully understood as explained earlier. The subordinate clause is divided into the following:
TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSE.
A] Noun clause: A noun clause is a group of words which can be divided into subject and predicate and perform the function of a noun and the headword is always a noun in a sentence. e.g.
Whatever the teacher said is true.
Everybody believes that Rose is a flirt.
The parts underlined above are noun clauses. The first one functions as the subject of the verb ‘’is’’ while the second functions as the object of the verb ‘’believes’
B] Adverbial clause: An adverbial clause is a group of words which can be divided into subject and predicate, and which perform the function of an adverb in the sentence it is found. e.g.
If you study hard, you will pass your papers.
I have not eaten since you last saw me.
The parts underlined above are adverbial clauses. The first one modifies the verb ‘’you will pass’’ while the second modifies the verb ‘’have not eaten’’
C] Adjective Clause: An adjectival clause is a group of words that can be divided into subject and predicate and functions of an adjective in the sentence it is found.
This is the boy who killed your dog.
Where is the book that I lent you last month?
The parts underlined are adjectival clauses. The first part qualifies the noun ‘boy’ while the second qualifies the noun ‘’book’’