CLASSIFICATION OF CROPS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE AND USES—BY INSTRUCTOR MRS. EREKATA, O.J.
Agricultural crops can be classified into groups for easy understanding. These include life cycle and uses.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LIFE CYCLE:
Crops are usually classified according to their life span which are:
ANNUAL CROPS: These are crops which complete their life cycle within one year. examples include maize, rice, yam, millet, groundnut etc.
BIENNIAL CROPS: These are crops that take two seasons to complete their life cycle. Examples include cocoyam, carrots, cabbage etc.
PERENNIAL CROPS: They are crops which take more than two years to complete their life cycle. They are also known as permanent crops. Examples are : oil palm, cocoa, rubber, orange, mango, banana etc.
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON USES: Crops are as well classified based on their uses which include the following:
CEREALS CROPS- They are crops belong to the grass family and they provide carbohydrate. Examples are: maize, millet, rice, guinea corn, wheat, barley, oat etc.
LEGUMES: They are protein-rich grain e.g. cowpea, groundnut, beans, soya beans etc.
ROOT AND TUBER CROPS: These crops produce tuber under the ground that is, they store food in the root or tuber. They are the major sources of carbohydrate e.g. yam, sweet potatoes, carrot, cassava, cocoyam etc.
VEGETABLE CROPS- These are crops grown for their leaves or fruits. The leaves or fruits are eaten fresh or cooked. They supply vitamins and minerals e.g. water leaf, bitter leaf, fluted pumpkin, lettuce, amaranthus, tomato, okra, garden egg etc.
FRUIT CROPS- These are crops grown mainly for the fruit they produce. They also provide vitamins and minerals e.g. banana, orange, pineapple, pawpaw, mango, guava etc.
BEVERAGE CROPS- These crops are used in producing food drinks e.g. cocoa, coffee, tea, kolanut etc.
SPICES- These crops add flavor to our food. They also provide vitamins and minerals e.g. onion, pepper, ginger, garlic etc.
OIL CROPS- These crops produce fruits/seeds which contain oil that are extracted and used by man for both domestic and industrial purposes e.g. oil palm, groundnut, sun flower, melon, coconut,, cotton etc.
FIBRE CROP- These crops produce materials used in making cloths, thread and textile e.g. cotton, jute, sisal, kenaf etc
LACTIX CROPS- These are crops which produce some white sticky liquid or latex used in plastic industries. e.g. rubber