AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, SOIL ACIDITYAND ALKALINITY-BY INSTRUCTOR EREKATA, O.J
Agricultural products are products derived from the farm. An agricultural product is anything we obtain from the farm. These products may be used directly or indirectly. For example yam, cassava, oranges, pawpaw, bananas etc are used directly as food while other like cocoa, rubber, cotton are used indirectly as raw materials for the production of other useful products e.g. cocoa can be used to produce chocolate, rubber for tyre, football etc.
CLASSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. Agricultural products can be classified into the following:
CROPS: These are plants grown for a particular purposes. They include cocoa, rubber, yam, vegetables, melon, maize, cotton, wheat, onion etc
LIVESCTOCKS: Live stocks are domestic animals which are kept by man e.g. cattle, goat, pig, sheep, rabbit etc.
POULTRY: These are birds kept on the farm by the farmer for their eggs and meat. Examples are duck, fowl, turkey etc.
AQUATIC ANIMALS: Aquatic animals are animals that lives in water. They include fish, crabs, crayfish, prawns etc. Some are kept by farmers for food.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND THEIR USES
Fowl for meat and eggs
Cattle for meat, milk and skin for leather.
Cotton for making clothes, thread
Cocoa for chocolate and beverages
Groundnut for groundnut oil, groundnut cake
Kolanut dye, medicine
Sugarcane making sugar.
Yam for food and flour
Palm oil for cooking, margarine and soap
Rubber for tyre, football, bags and shoes
Cassava for starch, cassava flour
Coconut for coconut oil, coconut cake, broom, brushes, footmats
Maize food and farm feed, making beer
Timber for building houses, furniture, boats wood for paper making
Fish fish oil, for food
SOIL ACIDITY AND SOIL ALKALINITY
Soil pH- Soil pH [pondius de Hydronium] can be defined as a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of soil. It is the measure of the concentration of hydrogen[hT] and hydroxylion[ohT] in the soil. The hydrogen ion concentration is also known as the acidity of the soil while the hydroxyl ion concentration is also known as the alkalinity of the soil. A soil solution which contains more H+ than OH+ is described as acidic while a solution which contains more OH+ than H+ is described as alkaline. The soil pH can be measured using an instrument known as the pH scale. A pH scale is a scale graduated from 1-14 used to measure the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Hydrogen ions neutral hydrogen ions
A pH scale
From the above pH analysis soil with
a] pH2 is strongly acidic
b] pH6 is slightly acidic
c] pH7 is neutral
d] pH8 is slightly alkaline
e] pH13 is strongly alkaline
CAUSES OF SOIL ACIDITY: The causes of soil acidity are:
Leaching – the washing down of plant nutrients beyond the reach of plant.
Use of acid fertilizer e.g. ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate
Presence of sulphur in the soil
Presence of acid parent materials
REMOVAL OF SOIL ACIDITY[CORRECTION]
Soil acidity can be removed by the application of liming materials [liming]. Examples of liming materials include limestone, quick lime, wood ash, organic manure.
CAUSES OF SOIL ALKALINITY: Soil alkalinity is caused when there are excessive quantities of soluble minerals in the soil. It can be removed or corrected by;
Applying irrigation to dissolve some of the salt
By adding some acid fertilizer
By adding sulphur to the soil.s