OCCUPATION: MEANING AND TYPES—-BY INSTRUCTOR EUNICE OKOYE.
DEFINITION OF OCCUPATION. Occupation can be defined as any legitimate activities in which people engaged themselves in order to earn a living. E.g. driving, trading, teaching, playing football etc.
TYPES OF OCCUPATION: It can be divided into three groups which are:
A. INDUSTRIAL OCCUPATION: This is used to describe all activities concerned with the Physical production of goods and industry. This can be divided into Extractive, Manufacturing and Constructive Industry.
1. EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRY: These are the industries that are involved in getting raw materials and natural resources from the soil or sea. E.g. fishing, farming, mining, drilling, quarrying, forest and hunting. The products of extractive occupation are cocoa, iron ore, crude oil, etc. It is also called primary Industry/ producer.
2. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: Manufacturing Industries are concerned with the processing and turning the raw materials extracted into finished or semi-finished goods. Examples are shoe making, food processing, textile, plastic making etc. Workers in this group are shoe maker, cooks, manafacturers. It is also known as secondary industry/producer.
3. CONSTRUCTIVE INDUSTRY: Constructive Industry is concerned with the idea of assembling of good produced into a useable form. It engages in building houses, construction of bridges, roads etc. Among them are carpenters, Goldsmiths, Bricklayers etc.
B. COMMERCIAL OCCUPATION: Commercial occupation is an occupation that involves marketing and distribution of goods. Commercial occupation include trading, insurance, banking, transportation, warehousing, tourism and communication.
C. SERVICES: These involves rendering a special assistance/work to people without involving a product or any tangible good. Service occupation can be divided into Direct and Indirect services.
1. Direct services: Direct services are services rendered to people and are paid for by those who enjoy the services. Examples of them are house maids, entertainers, private lawyers, private doctors, barbers, stewards etc.
2. Indirect Services: These are Services rendered to the general public but are not paid for by the members of the public directly. These types of services are being paid for by the government. Examples are public teachers, public doctors, police force, soldiers, custom officers etc.
FACTOR THAT CAN AFFECT THE CHOICE OF OCCUPATION: The following can affect the choice of occupation.
1. Education and Skill: Education and Skill of the workers have a lot to do in determining the choice of occupation. The formal/ informal training a person acquired will determine his/ her profession.
2. Natural resources: The available resources in a given environment will determine the choice of occupation. Farming will be the choice of occupation for most people in rural areas.
3. Climate and weather differences: The changes in climate and weather in any environment will also influence the nature of work in such environment. Fishermen in river area.
4. Salary and wages: The amount of money a get is a factor in the choice of occupation.
5. Policies: Government policies in a given society can determine the choice of occupation by an individual. This means how favourable the job is to an individual.